"We really want to catch all smokers but particularly the young who won’t have seen hard hitting campaigns before. They don’t understand what damage is happening in their bodies, what their risks are.." - Chief medical officer Prof Dame Sally Davie
Ex: Verruca - (Warts) small, rough non-cancerous lumps. They often develop on the skin of the hands and feet.
Warts are caused by an infection with the human papilloma virus (HPV).
The virus causes an excess amount of keratin, a hard protein, to develop in the top skin layer (epidermis). The extra keratin produces the rough, hard texture of a wart.
Read more about the causes of warts.
Hematuria = Blood in Urine
Seeing blood in your urine can cause more than a little anxiety. Yet blood in urine — known medically as hematuria — isn’t always a matter for concern. Strenuous exercise can cause blood in urine, for instance. So can a number of common drugs, including aspirin. But urinary bleeding can also indicate a serious disorder.
There are two types of blood in urine. Blood that you can see is called gross hematuria. Urinary blood that’s visible only under a microscope is known as microscopic hematuria and is found when your doctor tests your urine. Either way, it’s important to determine the reason for the bleeding.
The visible sign of hematuria is pink, red or cola-colored urine — the result of the presence of red blood cells. It takes very little blood to produce red urine, and the bleeding usually isn’t painful. If you’re also passing blood clots in your urine, that can be painful. A lot of times, though, bloody urine occurs without other signs or symptoms.
In many cases, you can have blood in your urine that’s visible only under a microscope (microscopic hematuria).
Biologist Karl Landsteiner formulated the ABO system of blood typing in 1901.
He proposed the existence of agglutinogens (antigens), which he called A and B, in blood corpuscles, and agglutinins (antibodies) called anti-a and anti-b in blood serum. The first three blood types he identified were named A, B, and C (later renamed type O; the ABO-system of blood group identification is still called Landsteiner’s classification), and he soon discovered a fourth blood type, AB.
Bacterial vaginosis is an abnormal vaginal condition that is characterized by vaginal discharge and results from an overgrowth of normal bacteria in the vagina. In the past, the condition was called Gardnerella vaginitis , after the bacteria that were thought to cause the condition. However, the newer name, bacterial vaginosis, reflects the fact that there are a number of species of bacteria that naturally live in the vaginal area and may grow to excess. The Gardnerella organism is not the sole culprit causing the symptoms. When these multiple species of bacteria become imbalanced, a woman can have a vaginal discharge with a foul odor.